An analysis of English writing errors of Kurdish EFL post-graduate students

Idrees Muhi Ali *

University of Zakho, Kurdistan Region - Iraq. (

Received: 05/ 2023 /   Accepted: 08/ 2023 /   Published: 01/ 2024


This study aims to recognize, categorize, and assess the errors in English writing done by Kurdish post-graduate learners enrolled at Language Center (LC) of the University of Zakho, Kurdistan Region of Iraq. This is conducted via applying the error analysis technique, which is considered a vital part of EFL research. By using a quantitative and qualitative method, the researchers limited their literature review and data analysis to the writing errors by several scholars from various angles, excluding types of writing errors (i.e., interlingual and intralingual errors are the two main classifications of errors.) according to Brown (2000). Thirty-two (32) postgraduate students from different disciplines took part in this study. The major data collection tool was the students' answer sheets from the elementary and pre-intermediate academic English curriculum at different English language levels (cutting edge). The current study seeks to address the type of writing errors and how frequently such writing errors occur in Kurdish EFL students’ writing. The researchers implemented process  of  coding  for finding  out writing  errors,  and tabulated  their frequencies  and  percentages  on    bar  charts. According to the findings of this study, the participants made fourteen different types of writing errors: grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, literal translation, misuse of verbs, articles, unnecessary prepositions, misuse of pronouns, subject-verb agreement, misuse of prepositions, apostrophes, misuse of conjunctions and sing of wordiness. The findings of this study also revealed that the most common errors committed by the Kurdish learners were in grammar, punctuation, using of wordiness, spelling, and capitalization. Such results are important for EFL teachers because they encourage them to pay careful attention to their students' writing errors and utilize them as pedagogical guidelines while designing activities.

KEYWORDS: Writing Skills, EFL, English Writing Errors, Sources of Writing Errors.


1.      Introduction

One of the four language skills, writing, is generally thought to be the most challenging to master, particularly in a place like the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, where English is taught as a foreign language in schools around the area. Although writing is taught in English at all school levels, students still struggle with it from kindergarten to university. Students gain receptive and productive skills during their academic careers including reading, writing, speaking, and listening. All four of these language skills must be considered by learners in order to acquire the language, since they are interdependent. It is well acknowledged that teaching English writing to EFL students and non-native English speakers alike may be extremely challenging (Richards & Renandya, 2002). However, according to Krashen (1982), adult learners are typically exposed to more comprehensive input that helps them learn the language more easily and quicker (cited in Murad, 2015).

Kurdish EFL teachers must concentrate on all language skills without prioritizing any of them, but they must give particular attention to their students' writing (Amnuai, 2020). However, according to Schmitt (2000), teaching an infinite number of chunks is neither feasible nor desirable, but it is advantageous for language learners to be exposed to lexical chunks and develop skills in analyzing them (cited in Abdulqader et al., 2017).                                

As the Arabic script is used in schools rather than the Latin alphabet, the Kurdistan Region of Iraq is distinct in writing ability. As a result, improving a learner's writing skills requires more time, effort, and experience. Several studies have been done on the writing mistakes made by Kurdish students (Ahmed, 2017; Omar, 2019; Abdullah & Muhammad, 2020; Aljaf et al., 2021).                                 

The studies examine written corrective feedback, error correction, and the writing issues encountered by Kurdish EFL learners. Additionally, the studies that Kurdish learners' English writing proficiency is quite low, despite years of study. More intriguingly, it is surprising to find postgraduate students majoring in the English language have the same difficulties with English writing abilities as their peers from other departments.

Kurdish EFL learners' poor writing abilities are partially attributed to technology since the majority of the learners write messages, emails, assignments, and projects using electronic devices like smartphones, tablets, and computers. Furthermore, teachers should feel awful about their learners' poor writing performance since they can at the very least recognize the learners' mistakes and concentrate on them for correction. Even though a little amount of research has been conducted on this topic in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, none of these studies have been able to accurately identify Kurdish learners' English writing errors, this study aims to shed light on the writing abilities of Kurdish EFL learners from English Language center at Zakho University, as well as to identify and categorize their most frequent writing errors. More precisely, the current study seeks to address the following questions:

1.    What type of writing errors do Kurdish EFL students often make?

2.    How frequently such writing errors occur in Kurdish EFL students’ writings?

2. Literature Review

  2.1 Error Analysis

Error analysis is a technique used to assess the speaking and writing abilities of foreign or second language learners. According to Crystal (2008), error analysis is a “technique for identifying, classifying and systematically interpreting the unacceptable forms produced by someone learning a foreign language, using any of the principles and procedures provided by linguistics” (p.165). Many scholars have presented arguments from a variety of perspectives. For instance, Corder (1967) and Brown (2000) underline the importance of analysing learners' mistakes since they may help identify EFL learners' strengths and weaknesses in English writing abilities. Similarly, Al-Saudi (2013) believes that errors might assist language teachers in determining their students' progress. The concept of error analysis in the context of teaching and learning FL or SL dates all the way back to the 1970s. Over the last several decades, error analysis has attracted a large number of researchers to collect and explain language learners’ errors made in writing and speaking. Many have misinterpreted the concept of error analysis in relation to learners' writing performance, although errors are seen as an integral element of the process of teaching and learning a language (Khansir, 2012); some even argue that they are an essential part of the language learning process (Corder, 1974). However, writing errors cannot be eliminated, they may assist language teachers in placing a greater emphasis on the learners' writing abilities, analyzing their errors, identifying the causes for their errors, and proposing an applicable remedy. Therefore, writing errors must be taken into account and should not be overlooked as they help learners develop their writing abilities.


According to Ellis (2008), the analysis of errors may aid language teachers in identifying their students' writing errors and dealing with them in a reasonable manner, and they also assist them in paying more attention to the construction of resources for learners in the future. Aljaf, Ahmed, and Salim (2021), on the other hand, believe that learners' writing errors are seen as a stumbling block in the process of language acquisition and that they must be addressed quickly.


 2.2 Sources of Errors

According to Lado (1957), the most common causes of mistakes are due to the learners' first language interfering with the target language learning process during the target language learning process. Typically, EFL learners discover that certain components of the target language are simple for them to learn, while other elements are difficult for them to acquire. In the case of these aspects being identical to those in their native language, they will be easy for them to learn. However, if the characteristics of the target language vary from those of their native language, it is assumed that they will find it challenging. In addition, this is true for Kurdish EFL students since several aspects of the Kurdish language are distinct from those of the English language. As a result, it takes a significant amount of time and effort for individuals to master the aspects of the language that are distinct from their native tongue. One such cause for making errors is overgeneralization, which occurs when learners believe that a pattern or norm in English functions without taking into account irregularities or exceptions. Another kind of learner's writing error that has been more prevalent in recent years is the use of technology, namely electronic gadgets that hinder the development of the learners' writing skills in English. 


2.3 Types of Errors

Brown (2000) states that errors are classified into two broad categories: interlingual errors and intralingual errors. The former refers to errors that are obvious and attributable to first language interference, which is referred to as negative interlingual transfer. The latter refers to errors caused by wrongly applying target language rules. Based on the researcher's observation of Kurdish writing and the findings of studies, Kurdish EFL Learners often make errors with plural nouns, third-person singular (s/es), capitalization, tenses, prepositions, and word order (Aljaf et al., 2021). Despite the problems that Kurdish EFL learners face in the classroom, EFL teachers cannot avoid the reality that they are not paying attention to their students' low performance in English language writing.


2.4 Previous Studies

Recently, academics have been increasingly interested in the issue of writing mistakes among EFL learners. Many investigations and evaluations of learners' English writing errors have been conducted all around the world. There have been a few studies focused on Kurdish EFL learners' writing errors in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region, but none have been able to show the precise kinds of errors the learners make when writing English. For instance, Chen (2004) looked at the English writing mistakes made by Chinese ESL students. His study found that students brought grammatical elements from the Chinese language to the English language. Ridha (2012) conducted a study to identify the essay writing mistakes made by Iraqi EFL students. The statistics showed that students produced a range of mistakes, with grammatical, word order, and grammar problems being the most frequent ones. The results of his analysis also showed that Arabic language interference was the main cause of the learners' blunders. Using the writings of 23 students at Gazi University, Köroglu (2014) assessed the syntactic mistakes committed by Turkish EFL learners in Turkey. The study demonstrated that students frequently overgeneralized and violated grammatical conventions while using prepositions, among other intralingual and interlingual mistakes. Abdullah (2020) conducted a study to determine the kind and frequency of errors made by Kurdish EFL students. The researcher collected data for the study by administering a composition exam to participants. The study discovered that the most often made errors by participants were in punctuation and capitalization. Aljaf, Ahmed, and Salim (2021) performed the most current research on writing error analysis in the Kurdistan Region. Their research sought to investigate the types and frequency of errors made by students in their writing. 80 writing examples from their students were randomly selected to identify and determine the most frequent errors. Their study discovered that the majority of students' compositions had spelling, punctuation, grammatical, and lexical problems.


 3. Methodology

3.1 Research Design

A corpus design and qualitative approaches were combined to create the mixed-methods design that was used to collect the data for this study. According to McCarthy and Sampson (2005), corpus design is the study of language is created in a scenario representative of the actual world, such as students' responses to writing assignments. Creswell (2012) claims that qualitative research is a form of academic research and that in order to carry it out, researchers must rely on the opinions of participants, ask in-depth questions, collect data that is primarily made up of texts written by participants, describe and analyze the words used by participants in the texts, and carry out formal analysis of the collected data.


3.2 Participants

In the present study, a sample of 32 post-graduate participants specializing in different disciplines (11 females and 21 males) participated. These participants are enrolled at the Language Center of the University of Zakho. The participants are enrolled at the language center to finish three or four levels of English proficiency courses for different academic purposes, such as applying for postgraduate studies (M.A. or PhD) as well as some of them in order to amend their certificates in their postgraduate studies. Prior to their enrollment in the English proficiency course, the participants have to take an official English language placement test conducted by the ministry of higher education and scientific research in the Kurdistan region. It is worth mentioning that all participants were of Kurdish origin and were between the ages of 23 and 35.


3.3 Instrument

           The test sheets from both elementary and pre-intermediate academic English students enrolled at Language Center at the “University of Zakho” served as the main instrument for gathering data for this study.  The test takers were required to write at least fifteen lines, which were about one hundred and fifty words to write a composition. In light of this, their responses had to be expressive in nature. More specifically, the questions were as follows: Write more than one hundred and fifty words on one of the following topics:

1-                   Kurdish Nawroz Festival.

2-                   Your Childhood Ambitions.



3.4 Procedures

The participants were given the question sheets and informed that the responses would be gathered and examined for research purposes. The time was free for them to finish their writing. After collecting them, the researcher reviewed and revised the answers on the participants’ answer sheets. The trustworthiness of the articles was then determined by having two more experienced academics review them. The researcher made it a point to highlight any flaws he saw and document them in a notebook as he checked and marked the articles.


3.5 Data analysis

In order to analyze the data collected for this study, the investigator utilized the procedures established by Corder (1974) in his research. First and foremost, every word and phrase the students wrote in their responses was carefully reviewed to see what writing errors they had produced. Second, coding was used to categorize the different error types into separate portions, which were then converted into a percentage to show how frequently they occurred. Finally, the results of this study were contrasted with those of a few other earlier investigations that had been carried out with a similar aim. The category of writing errors created by Chanquoy (2001), which was based on the findings of a prior study, was used to examine the data of this study. These errors include the following examples:

1. Spelling errors: This category includes errors that are connected to orthography.

2. Grammatical errors are divided into four categories: gender errors, number errors, agreement of nouns, verbs, and adjectives, and subject-verb agreement.

3. Punctuation mistakes: capitalization and punctuation problems fall under this category.


 4.   Results and Discussion

     4.1 Types of English Writing Errors Made by the Kurdish EFL postgraduate Students in their Answers:


    Results of this study showed that Kurdish EFL students from language center (LC) at Zakho University of Zakho, Iraq, made a variety of errors in their writings, including: grammatical errors, punctuation, wordiness, spelling, capitalization, literal translation, misuse of verbs, articles, unnecessary prepositions, misuse of pronouns, subject-verb agreement, misuse of prepositions, apostrophes, and misuse of conjunctions, as shown in Table 1.








Table 1: Classification of error types



Type of Errors

Example of error identified

Definition of error type



toked, plaing, aluawes, selebration.

The students misspelled the words "talked," "playing," "always," and "Celebration."



on the other hand, people celebrate it one day before.



I knew that the thing that allah gives you is always the best thing.


At the start of the sentence, the first letter of the word “on” is the small letter “lowercase.”


“allah” is a proper noun. So, the initial letter is not capitalized.





I always played with my little sister.

The correct form: I always play with my little sister.




 one day there were man called kawa decided to kill the king to do that he chosed fire to be a symbol for killing the king.













“When kawa killed zohak, who killed many young people, and used their bone marrow for his treatment”.


A full stop must be used to end each sentence. The correct form is:

(One day, there was a man called kawa, who decided to kill the king. To do that, he chose fire to be a symbol for killing the king.)


Comma must be used between (one day and there was) as well as between (To do that, he chose fire …), as well as a full stop must be utilized to mark the end of the sentence.

(who decided to kill the king.)

 Hyphen is missing; the sentence must be as: (When kawa killed zohak who killed many young people and used their bone-marrow for his treatment.)


Misuse of pronouns

Before 21st march going to mountain.



All people go out from home to picnic to make happy day with our family and making food.  








Many research about update disease and trying the best for my community.




When kawa killed zohak because of killing many young and use their bone-marrow for his treatment.






The pronoun is missing, and the sentence must be

 (Before 21st of march, people go to the mountains.)

Here, the pronoun “they” is missing, and the sentence must be

(All people go out from home to picnic to make happy day with our family, and they make food.  


The pronoun “my” is missing, and the correct sentence should be

Many researches about update disease and try my best for my community.)

 The pronouns “who” and “people” are missing, and the correct one must be: (When kawa killed zohak who killed many young people and used their bone-marrow for his treatment.)




When I was in high school, I wanted to complete my studies.




 at the 21st, march the first day of Nawroz.



In addition, on Nawroz kurd go to outside to picnic.




The preposition "in" cannot be related to the noun "school" in this example. The correct preposition is:

(at high school).

When I was at high school, I wanted to complete my studies.


The preposition “at” doesn’t match with the number “21”. The correct one is (on the 21th of March).

On 21st of March is the first day of Nawroz.


Here, the preposition “on” must be changed into “in”. The sentence must be

In addition, in Nawroz kurds go outside “outdoors” to have picnic.






Nawroz holds special meaning Kurdish people.




Its Kurdish new year start from it.

The article "a" is not included in this sentence.

The proper sentence is: (Nawroz holds a special meaning for Kurdish people.)


The article “the” is missing. The correct form is (The Kurdish new year starts from it.)


Subject verb agreement

There were several ambition for me when I was at the age of teenager.

My childhood ambitions is when I was 12 years old.



The subjects and verbs of these two sentences do not match. The first one “s” is wrong, and in the second one “is” is wrong,. The correct forms must be:

There were several ambitions for me, when I was teenager.


My childhood ambitions are when I was 12 years old.




All people come back to home.

Among the kurds families spend the day in the countryside

 I didn’t get the enough grades.

Unnecessary words, such as (to, among the, and the) are found in the sentences. The correct sentences are:

All people come back home.

Kurds families spend the day in the countryside.

I didn’t get enough grades.


Misuse of conjunctions

So that I could collect money so that I could be successful.



In this sentence the conjunction “and”

 is missing. The correct form must be:

So that, I could collect money, and so that, I could be successful.



I always played with my little sisters and brothers with my doctor toys and pretended myself as a doctor.


The possessive apostrophe for the word “doctor” is missing. The correct form must be:

(I always played with my little sisters and brothers with my doctor’s toys and pretended myself as a doctor.)


Misuse of prepositions

I could be successful and not depend on anyone in my life.

The preposition “to” is missing and the accurate sentence must be:

I could be successful and not to depend on anyone in my life.


Literal translation from Kurdish to English

It located on 21st march.





  When I child my ambition I wanted player football.

The word “located” derives from Kurdish. So, the sentence in English is:

It is on 21st march.


“I wanted player football” is a Kurdish expression. The English must be:

When I was a child, my ambition was that to be a football player.


Misuse of verbs

When I was a child my great ambition become a physician.

The word "was" is missing, the first verb phrase started with the past tense and the correct form must be:

(When I was a child my great ambition was to become a physician.)


Table 1 shows that the Kurdish postgraduate EFL students at Zakho University language center “LC” produced a variety of writing errors. Their text had problems in Grammar, Punctuation, Wordiness, Spelling, Capitalization, Literal translation from Kurdish to English, Misuse of verbs, Articles, Unnecessary preposition, Misuse of pronouns, Subject-verb agreement, Misuse of prepositions, Apostrophes, and Misuse of conjunctions.


             4.2 Frequency of Writing Errors Made by the post-graduate Kurdish EFL Students

Current study aimed to identify the most frequent errors made by Kurdish postgraduate learners by looking at the mistakes they made when writing. According to the findings of the study, the participants frequently committed the same errors when they write, Look at Table 2 below and Figure 1.             


Table 2 Frequency and percentage of the writing error types


Type of error


Percentage %
















literal translation



Misuse of verbs






Unnecessary preposition



Misuse of pronouns



Subject verb agreement



Misuse of prepositions






Misuse of conjunctions








Figure 1 Kurdish EFL Postgraduate students’ writing errors


According to Table 2, grammatical mistakes were the most common kind of writing error committed by the students (frequency = 212; percentage = 15.69). Punctuation errors were the second most common form of mistake (frequency: 193; percentage: 17.82%). Wordiness was the third most common type of mistake made by the learners (frequency: 171; percentage: 15.78%). Spelling mistakes were the fourth most common form of error (frequency: 170; percentage: 15.69%). Other errors included capitalization (frequency = 88; percentage = 8.12%), literal translation (frequency = 71; percentage = 6.55%), verb misuse (frequency = 53; percentage = 4.89%), article misuse (frequency = 32; percentage = 2.95%), unnecessary preposition (frequency = 29; percentage = 2.67%), pronoun misuse (frequency = 22; percentage = 2.03%), subject verb agreement (frequency = 17; percentage = 1.56%), and preposition misuse (frequency = 9; percentage = 0.83%). Apostrophes (frequency = 7; percentage = 0.64%) and the incorrect use or missing of conjunctions (frequency = 7; percentage = 0.64%) were also seen in the work of the Kurdish student. Additionally, there were 3627 total words written by all participants, with 1083 of those words containing errors.


4.3 Discussions

This study aimed at examining the writing errors made by Kurdish EFL students at University of Zakho Language Center (LC). To consider the first question of this study, the findings found that the students committed several different types of errors in English writing. One of these types of errors was spelling. The common misspellings that Zakho Language Center (LC) students made were: (1) e instead of i and k instead of ck in the word *cheken as opposed to chicken. (2) the letter i in the word *simbol instead of "symbol, (3) missing e in the word *natur as opposed to nature, (4) s instead of c, i is unnecessary and e is missing in the word *selebrait instead of celebrate, (5) missing l in the word *finaly as opposed to finally, (6) missing a in the word *beutiful as opposed to beautiful, (7) adding the letter e instead of y in the word *happe instead of happy.


Kurdish EFL learners frequently make mistakes with spelling, prepositions, plural nouns, regular and irregular verbs, third-person singular (s/es), tenses, and word order, according to the researcher's observations of Kurdish post-graduate writing and the results of studies. Full stops, capital letters, colons, and apostrophes were parts of errors.  I see that all of this is due to the quality of the study and the teaching method based on the theoretical side and the teaching staff's neglect of the practical side.


It is worth noting that the Kurdish students used their mother tongue in their expressions in their writings in the target language, and sometimes this may cause the creation of writings that may not fit into the target language. For instance, "It located on 21st march". The word “located” derives from Kurdish, which means “de kavita". So, the sentence should be in English as: "It is on March 21st.” We note that this sentence contains errors in sequencing the words in one sentence because of the mother tongue, so instead of saying "It is on March 21st,” the learner wrote “It is on 21st march”.


These findings supported Mahmood's (2016) claim that spelling mistakes were a specific type of writing error. Additionally, the research found postgraduate participants frequently failed to capitalize their words in their writing. For instance, most of them did not capitalize the first letter of a word that ought to be capitalized, regardless of the type of function of the term.


Moreover, the first letter of the first word after the full stop was not capitalized by the majority of the students who took part in this research project, as *in 21 of March people go out instead of (In). The study's findings are consistent with Körolu (2014).


The findings of this research demonstrated that the learner's paper contained grammatical errors. The expression*” I want _ have my own business” is an example of this sort of mistake. It is clear that the learner did not utilize the preposition (to) between the words "want" and "have". The proper statement is “I want to have my own business”.


As a result of the present study, it was discovered that Kurdish students also frequently make errors in punctuation, pronoun usage, preposition usage, missing conjunctions, articles, and verb tenses as well as wordiness. These findings concur with those of various earlier investigations carried out by Aljaf, Ahmed, and Salim (2021), and Abdullah (2020).


Kurdish students also frequently use wordiness, which means using unnecessary words in the sentence. Particularly brief, ambiguous terms that does not add much to the content. Wordy phrases frequently use indirect language; the subject and verb do not clearly state the sentence's main idea. For example, the phrase "at that time" in learner number 30 is "when I was young in high school, at that time I started thinking about my ambition". Here, the phrase above does not add much meaning to the sentence, meaning that the meaning wouldn’t be changed even if we removed it.

Regarding the second question, this study's results revealed that the most common types of writing errors made by Kurdish students were: grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, and literal translation from Kurdish to English as well as frequently uses of wordiness. These sorts of writing errors are attributed to a variety of variables, including the student's native language and the Arabic alphabet, due to the students' lack of familiarity with the English alphabet. The findings of this research corroborate those of Ridha's (2012) study.


Finally, there were 3627 total words written by all participants, with 1083 of those words containing errors. And all participants have advanced degrees, including doctorates, master's, and bachelor’s degrees from different disciplines. But that did not stop them from making errors, although they studied English for six years in elementary school and six years in middle school, and some students studied their postgraduate studies in English. This shows the need for the Ministry of Higher Education to review the English language course requirements for different levels at high and middle schools as well as the university fields of study.


5.    Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusions

One of the most important obstacles that EFL students confront in the process of learning English is writing skills, particularly in a place like the Kurdistan Region of Iraq where English is taught as a foreign language. Due to the students' unsatisfactory performance in writing especially in the places in which their alphabets are different from the English letters, language educational experts are always seeking to apply new techniques to discover, categorize, and evaluate the writing errors. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the sorts and frequency of errors made by Kurdish EFL students studying at University of Zakho in their answers.


The results of the study indicated that the students made many kinds of errors including: grammar, punctuation, wordiness, spelling, capitalization, literal translation from Kurdish to English, misuse of verbs, articles, prepositions, pronouns, subject-verb agreement, apostrophes, misuse of conjunctions as well as using of wordiness. The research also discovered that there were 3627 total words written by all participants, with 1083 of those words containing errors. The most typical mistakes learners made were in grammar which refers to the lack of students' knowledge about the importance of using tenses as well as how and where to use it in the sentences. Generally, considering the table 2 we counted these four elements of Grammar mistakes, Spelling, capitalization and using of wordiness as the most frequent errors made by Kurdish learners in general. Despite greater efforts to identify and assess the writing errors the participants make; more research is required to develop the most efficient method for improving students' writing abilities.


5.2 Recommendations

The following are some suggestions made by the study team:

1. Curriculum designers should give greater emphasis to students' writing abilities while developing their courses.

3. Teachers must provide additional opportunities for their students to practice their writing skills in the classroom by incorporating exercises into their lessons.

5. When students make grammatical mistakes, teachers should identify the errors and correct them as quickly as feasible.




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Appendix 1


The Kurdish postgraduate EFL learners' errors individually as numbers


Numbers of written words

Numbers of mistakes

Academic achievement

Learner 1



Bachelor degree

Learner 2



Bachelor degree

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Appendix 2

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دراسة اخطاء الكتابة في اللغة الانكليزية كلغة اجنبية للطلاب الكورد في الدراسات العليا- تحليل الاخطاء




تهدف الدراسة الحالية إلى التحقق والتقييم والتصنيف في اخطاء الكتابة في اللغة الانكليزية كلغة اجنبية باستخدام طريقة الكمية والنوعية لمجموعة من طلاب الكورد في الدراسات العليا في جامعة زاخو(مركز اللغة) بإقليم كردستان العراق. حيث شارك في هذه الدراسة اثنين و ثلاثون من طلاب و طالبات الدراسات العليا من تخصصات وشهادات مختلفة. كانت أداة جمع البيانات الرئيسية هي أوراق من اجوبة الطلاب للمناهج الابتدائية وما قبل المتوسطة لمستويات اللغة الإنجليزية تحت عنوان (cutting edge) من كتابة الانشاء المطلوب منهم كتابتها  لغرض تحليل البيانات وايجاد أخطاء في الكتابة وتصنيفها. وفقًا لنتائج هذه الدراسة ، تم التحقيق في القواعد النحوية وعلامات الترقيم والكلمات الزائدة و اخطاء الاملاء والكتابة بالأحرف الكبيرة والترجمة الحرفية للغة الام وإساءة استخدام الأفعال والادوات التعريف وحروف الجر غير الضروري وإساءة استخدام الضمائر وتوافق الفعل مع الفاعل وإساءة استخدام حروف الجر والفواصل وإساءة استخدام كلمات الاقتران. حيث  ان مجموعهم ثلاثة عشر نوعًا مختلفًا من اصناف أخطاء الكتابة. و كذلك أظهرت نتائج هذا الاستطلاع أيضًا أن القواعد اللغوية ، وعلامات الترقيم ، والكلمة ، و اخطاء الاملاء ، والكتابة بالأحرف الكبيرة كانت في الغالب من اكثر الاخطاء التي يرتكبها المتعلمين الكورد.  كذلك أظهرت النتائج أنه من مجموع 3627 عدد كلمات كان  1083خطا يتم ارتكابها كمجموع الكلي للاخطاء في الكتابة. هذه النتائج مهمة لمعلمي اللغة الإنجليزية كلغة أجنبية لأنها تحفزهم على التركيز على أخطاء الكتابة التي يرتكبها طلابهم واستخدامها كتوصيات تربوية و ايضا للمتعلمين لتطوير مهاراتهم اللغوية عند تعلم لغة ثانية.




شاشیێن د نڤیسینا زمانێ ئنگلیزیێ دا وه‌كو زمانه‌كێ بیانی ژلایێ قوتابیێن خاندنا بلند ێن كورددا

 پوخته‌ :

ئارمانجا ڤێ ڤه‌كولینێ پشكنینا شاشیانه‌ د زمانێ ئنگلیزى دا وه‌كو نڤێسین ژلایێ قوتابیێن كورد ێن خاندنا بلند ڤه‌ وه‌كو زمانێ بیانى برێكا نڤێسینا دارشتنێ لسه‌ر دوو بابه‌تێن هه‌لبژارتى كو د هێته‌ هژمارتن به‌شه‌كى گرنك د ڤه‌كولینا زمانێ ئنگلیزی دا وه‌ك زمانه‌كێ بیانى برێكا بكارئینانا شێوازى چه‌ندایه‌تى و چه‌وایێ.  ڤه‌كولین و پێداچوونا ئه‌ده‌بى و شیكاركرنا زانیارییان لسه‌ر شاشیێن نڤێسینێ دزمانى ئنگلیزی دا وه‌ك (رێزمان , خه‌لپه‌ندن , په‌یڤێن زێده‌ , شاش نڤێسین , كاپیتالكرن , وه‌رگێرانا زمانێ دایكێ  , شاشیێن بكارئینانا كاران , ئامیرێن ناسنامه‌یێ, گوتنێن پێشیان ێن نه‌ پێویست , چوانیا بكارئینانا جهناڤكان , په‌ژراندنا كارى دگه‌ل بكه‌رى , شاش بكارئینانا گوتنێن پێشیان , كوماس , و وشێن هه‌ڤگرتنێ ) هاتن دیاركرن و ده‌ست نیشـــــانكرن وه‌ك شاشی كو تێكرایا وان دبیته‌ ( 1083) شاشی ژ كوژمێ وشین هاتین نڤێسین كو ژمارا وان دبیته‌ (3627  ) و ئه‌ف چه‌نده‌ لسه‌ر كوژمێ ( 13) شاشیان ین هاتین شلوڤكرن و ده‌ستنیشانكرن ژلائى پسپورین زمانی ڤه‌ هاتبوو شلوڤه‌كرن و دارشتن. ئه‌ف ڤه‌كولینه‌ دێ وێ چه‌ندێ دیار كه‌ت كو پیته‌ بێده‌دان د زمانێ ئنگلیزى دا ژلایێ ماموستایان و هه‌روه‌سا پروسا خاندنا سه‌ره‌تایى و ناڤنجى و خاندنا بلند ژ بو پێشئێخستنا شیانێن قوتابیا لسه‌ر ئاستێ زمان و زانیێ.


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